Tuesday, October 28, 2014 2 comments

Don't sweat over fall rose care

Dear Readers,
Better late than never. I am in Australia and meant to post this sooner. And for those who read the last post about the flying foxes, they are now gone from the Royal Sydney Botanical Gardens. More on that story to come.

In a time when pumpkins and mums dominate the garden landscape, it’s a treat to see some of my favorite roses making their final appearances of the season. 

Cooler temps give Sally Holmes a pretty fall blush
These last roses of summer can often be the sweetest – the nip in the air deepens the colors and the blooms themselves are sometimes a bit larger than usual. Best of all, I don’t have to worry about pruning or fertilizing until 2015. I can just sit back and enjoy the fall show.

Of course, there are a few chores to be done in the rose garden before winter sets in. But the list is pretty short for most areas of the country and includes more  “don’ts” than “do’s.”

Munstead Wood
For starters, don’t cut your roses back in the autumn. If you prune now you’ll just suffer dieback and will have to cut back more severely in the spring.  Wait until the forsythia blooms in your area before breaking out the secateurs. 

An exception would be Ramblers that bloom on old wood  -- if you wait till next year to tidy them up, you may well cut off potential new flowers. Trim about one-third of the growth now and cut out any dead canes.

I also suggest trimming back bushes that have developed extra long canes. In my garden, English Roses such as James Galway and the hybrid tea Elina have thrown out eight-foot canes. I trim those back to waist height so they don’t whip around in winter winds injuring themselves, their neighbors or me.
Trim back taller roses like James Galway

Don’t trim off rose hips, the colorful fruits that form in the late summer and early fall. They often turn lovely shades of orange-red, and are a signal to the bush that it’s time to get ready for a long winter’s nap.

Hips are a treat for the eyes and the birds

Do tear off and destroy any leaves that display signs of disease or insect infestation. Also dig up and discard any bushes that have died. Never put diseased leaves or dead roses in your compost pile.

Do identify any bushes that might need extra winter protection. Most of the newer shrubs and miniatures don’t need special care.

Darcey Bussell can bloom into November
If you aren’t sure whether a variety is tender or not, play it safe and add an 8” mound of soil, compost, leaf mold or other organic material around the base of the bush. Check with an American Rose Society Consulting Rosarian in your area for additional advice and winter protection tips.

Finally, scour the catalogs when they arrive and start thinking about new plants you’d like to add to the garden next year.

It’s a flight of fancy that will transport you away from the woes of winter.
Sunday, October 12, 2014 0 comments

Hanging around Down Under

Dear readers, 
I originally wrote this article for The Christian Science Monitor while we were in Australia for son Sam's wedding in 2011. We're heading back Down Under soon, this time to meet baby Poppy. I wonder if the grey-headed flying foxes are still in the botanical gardens? I'll let you know!

Here is the original article. Enjoy!

Just after we sold our house in Maryland, my husband and I visited Australia for a well-deserved holiday and son Sam’s wedding.

One of our first sightseeing stops was the Royal Botanic Gardens where we checked out the Queen of Flowers and learned that Australian roses suffer from many of the same pests and diseases we cope with in the US.

The Sydney Opera House can be see from the gardens

Not long after visiting the Palace Rose Garden, we wandered over to the Palm Grove, where I spied what appeared to be some hefty coconuts hanging from the trees. 

Imagine my surprise when one of the “coconuts” suddenly started shrieking, unfurled its wings, and flew over my head on a path toward the Sydney Opera House.

Suddenly, one of the "coconuts" took off

Grey-headed flying foxes

What I thought were hundreds of hanging fruits turned out to be a colony of grey-headed flying foxes. Named because the faces of the creatures resemble a fox (I didn’t care to get close enough to confirm that), they are actually one of the largest species of bats in the world.

Flying foxes weigh as much as two pounds and have a wingspan of up to five feet. Although they generally feed at night, the bats often take a noontime zoom around the gardens. No wonder folks at the snack bar suggest sitting under umbrellas while dining. 

The bats are reputed to be very intelligent, with large eyes and an acute sense of smell and hearing. During their nightly sorties, they can venture as far as 25 miles from their campsite at the gardens. 

And because they are one of the few species that pollinates the flowers and spreads the seeds of rain forest trees, flying foxes are a vital part of the local ecosystem.

They’re messy guests

Sadly, though, they are considered a messy nuisance anywhere they decide to hang out.

And since they are damaging the trees in areas such as the Palm Grove, the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service has granted the gardens permission to begin a two- to four-week noise disturbance program to encourage the bats to settle elsewhere.

A similar program succeeded at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Melbourne.

The gorgeous Sydney skyline

Thursday, September 25, 2014 6 comments

How to grow Mums. (If you must.)

Mums have been popular for hundreds of years, but not at my house

I’ve never been much of a chrysanthemum fan. 

For starters, they smell funny.  Many of the colors tend to be gaudy. And the blooms don’t age gracefully.

This time of year I get annoyed when I see hundreds of them lined up in front of roadside stands and garden centers. I know what the mum and pumpkin sightings mean: I am being pushed into fall when I’m not ready to let go of summer.

I  realize that turning up my nose at these harbingers of autumn means I am out of step with much of the gardening world. After all, garden mums (C. x morifolium) have been wildly popular for centuries.  

So despite being a chrysanthemum curmudgeon, I wanted to offer some tips that will enable you to grow these wretched plants to the best of your ability.

From China, with love

Mums were first cultivated in China, possibly as early as the 15th Century B.C. Several species of chrysanthemums native to both China and Japan were used in an extensive hybridizing program that, over time, resulted in the “domesticated” garden mum.   

Mums found their way to Europe in the seventeenth century where the appealing gold flowers received an enthusiastic welcome. Today,  hybridizing continues full speed ahead in the hopes of creating new flower forms and plants that can better tolerate cold. At this time more than 5,000 cultivars have been named. 

Don't want to plant mums? Enjoy them in pots, then discard

Mum care 101                           

 Yoder, one of America’s leading mum breeders, offers the following tips which apply regardless of color, flower form or flowering time:

• Always plant mums in a spot where they will receive at least half a day of sun.  Plant in fer­tile, well-drained soil.  Loosen the soil to a depth of 6 to 8 inches and mix in peat moss or com­post to condition the soil and improve drainage. Measure from the center of the plant and space mums about 15 to 20 inches apart.

• Water thoroughly, adding 1 to 2 gallons of water to the soil around each plant.  When rainfall is scant, continue to water as needed to prevent wilting.  Keep the soil moist as colder weather approaches.

• Never fertilize the flowering garden mums you plant in the fall.  All the season's growing is finished by that time.  Plants will not need fertilizer until next spring.

• Mother Nature doesn't prune back plants as win­ter approaches and you shouldn’t either.  Let the brown foliage stand through the winter.  Mulch plants after the ground begins to freeze - not before - with leaves, straw, peat moss or other organic materials.

• Prune away old stems and gradually remove mulch in the spring. Pinch mums back from June through July 15 to encourage bushy growth and a greater show of fall flowers.  

So there you have it.Everything you need to know to keep your mums thriving from year to year. 

The dry summer in many areas of the country may mean colors will be more vivid this year. With a little luck and a lot of water, you should have loads of blooms that will last well into October.
As for me, I’ll still be enjoying my roses.

Sunday, September 7, 2014 2 comments

I think that I shall never see, Part 2

The world's largest Fraser Fir

Back in March I wrote a Dirt Diaries posting called “I think that I shall never see a sight as lovely as a tree."

In kind of a tip of the cap to Joyce Kilmer, I visited nearby High Hampton  to see what winter had done to some of the most magnificent trees in the country.

World's largest Bald Cypress

Bald Cypress in August
For those who may not have seen that posting, High Hampton Inn and Country Club in North Carolina is a haven of southern hospitality where afternoon tea is still served, gentlemen wear coats to dinner and televisions are non-existent. I first went to High Hampton when I was in high school. Days spent there with my Dad are some of my most treasured memories.

The estate was originally a summer retreat for the Hampton family. Wade Hampton III later purchased the property and along with Modecai Zachary, built the Hampton Hunting Lodge. They also built the Church of the Good Shepard which still exists today, and a school for mountain children.

Copper Beech trunk

Copper Beech

In 1890, Carolyn Hampton (Wade Hampton’s niece) married Dr. William Halstead of Johns Hopkins, and the couple honeymooned on the mountain property. Dr. Halstead (who was also an amateur botanist) thought the land to be the most beautiful place on earth. They purchased the estate from Carolyn’s aunt and renamed it High Hampton.

Kentucky Coffee Tree (behind cabin to the right)

Today when you visit High Hampton you can see the world’s largest Fraser Fir, a National Champion Bottlebrush Buckeye, the tallest Bald Cypress in America and several North Carolina State Champs including a Kentucky Coffee Tree and a Black Locust. All were planted over 100 years ago.

I was told this tree was a Weeping Willow

It's actually a Weeping Beech

I took pictures of many of those trees five months ago and promised to come back to show you what they look like when dressed up in their summer greenery.

National Champion Bottlebrush Buckeye

So here’s how they all looked this summer. I’ll return to see them ablaze with color this fall. 

But my camera still won’t do them justice.

The trees were magnificent. The gardens weren't too shabby either.
Monday, August 25, 2014 2 comments

Summer 2014, we hardly knew ye

I went back to look at the posting I wrote about the end of summer last year, and I am going to sound like a broken record: Wasn’t it just a couple of days ago we were at the Biltmore for the unveiling of the International Rose Trials winners?

Miracle on the Hudson took top honors at beautiful Biltmore

Then wasn’t it just yesterday we headed out on a 10-day road trip in early June that took us to Williamsburg, Virginia Beach, Cambridge, MD, Longwood Gardens and DC? 

The wild onions of Yorktown

Another amazing Virginia Beach sunset

American Pillar (a hybrid wichurana)  at Longwood

Mama Robin in DC

I always feel like somebody's watching me
So what happened to the rest of the summer and how come next weekend ushers in Labor Day?

Well, I don’t have any answers. Once again summer seems to have evaporated. 

My roses were spectacular (if I do say so myself)

But at least I have some wonderful photographs to remind me of the time that seemed to go by as a blur.

Enjoy my summer snapshots and join me in savoring the final days before we feel a nip in the air.

Because I am certainly not ready for mums, pumpkins and black cats.

Gorgeous wildflowers everywhere

Bees were wild about the 86-bloom spray of Lyda rose
Our hydrangeas died to the ground but these Annabelles survived
The view from the mountaintop garden was just as spectacular
Golf was good
Goodbye summer :(

Tuesday, July 22, 2014 16 comments

Are the new coneflowers just pretty faces?

When you specialize in one particular plant, it’s easy to fall into a gardening rut.

While living in Maryland, I focused on roses and companion plants that looked good with roses. I wasn’t very interested in experimenting with anything new.
Now that I’m starting over with a garden in the mountains of North Carolina, I see I’ve been missing out on some really interesting perennials. I inherited a few daylilies and am just beginning to appreciate their beauty and usefulness.
I was also intrigued when a coneflower popped up in an area where I’d sown wildflower seeds last summer. It was just an old fashioned Echinacea purpurea but it looked quite elegant amid a group of oxeye daisies.

I wondered why I hadn’t noticed this appealing flower before.
The humble Echinacea has some fancy new cousins
Hardy, attractive, and easy to grow, these popular American wildflowers have long been a staple of the perennial border both here and in Europe.

Beginning in the mid-1990s, a number of enterprising plant breeders began making crosses between several varieties of native coneflowers in an attempt to make a good thing even better.

Harvest Moon

The result is a dizzying array of new hybrids in a rainbow of delicious colors, along with a wide choice of flower forms (including pom-poms and doubles) and sizes from midget to statuesque.
Keeping up with all these new and unusual coneflowers is about as difficult as figuring out which of a multitude of rose introductions to try. The number of choices and names boggle the mind.
Milk Shake

Should I get a Milkshake and Tomato Soup? Or a Marmalade and Merlot?
And once I decide on which of the new beauties to try, should I assume it will be as easy-care as the old standby?
The coneflower controversy
The traditional purple coneflower has been a Top 10 perennial for decades. It self-seeds so even when the original plant is just a memory, true seedlings will have taken its place.
Unfortunately, many of the new introductions don’t perform as dependably in the garden.
Raspberry Truffle

Many seem to disappear after a year or so, and others never bloom. Some fade quickly in the heat. A number of varieties don’t set seed and others produce strange seedlings.
It’s a disappointing result after a great deal of hype and high expectations.
Anecdotal evidence also suggests that the success rate for certain new coneflowers may depend on the region where they are grown.

Jeff Dinslage of Nature Hills Nursery reports that Tomato Soup has been a star in his Nebraska yard for several years despite being placed in the worst spot in the garden. Kim’s Knee Hi is another variety that does well in the heartland.
Kim's Knee Hi
Fatal Attraction and Fragrant Angel don’t mind the heat and clay soils of the mid-Atlantic according to a three-year study done by the nonprofit Mount Cuba Center in northern Delaware.
And compact Elton Knight has done well enough in Britain to be given the Award of Garden Merit by the Royal Horticultural Society.
White Swan
I don’t know if my White Swan and Ruby Star will be winners here in the North Carolina mountains, but I will certainly report if either one rates a thumbs-up.
I hope to hear more about Echinacea experiences in other areas of the country.

The explosion of these unique and enticing plants is exciting news for gardeners.

But before we all go coneflower crazy, we need to separate the dazzlers from the duds.

Hot Paprika